Physical and Chemical Properties of Cotton Fibre

Properties of Cotton Fiber | Physical Characteristics of Cotton Fibre | Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Fiber | Cotton Properties

Where Does Cotton Come From?
Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The cotton plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world including Africa, Americas and India. It should be noted here that, the greatest diversity of wild cotton species have found in Mexico followed by Africa and Australia.
Cotton fiber
Cotton fiber
Physical Properties of Cotton Fibre:
Cotton fibre has some physical characteristics which are pointed out in the below:

  1. Length: 0.5ʺ – 2.5”
  2. Strength, tenacity (gm per denier): 3 – 5
  3. Dimensional stability: medium
  4. Heat preventive power: medium
  5. Moisture regain: 7-10% (standard 8.5%)
  6. Stiffness: 57-60 g/d due to high crystallinity
  7. Elasticity: 1.50- 1.58
  8. Resiliency: low
  9. Abrasion resistance: medium
  10. Density (gm/cc): less than both silk and wool but more than linen.
  11. Color: cream or yellowish like clean white.
  12. Specific gravity: 1.52-1.55
Chemical Properties of Cotton Fibre:
The main chemical characteristics of cotton fiber have presented in the following:

1. Action with alkali:
Here, preventive power is good. Alkali does not damage cotton fibre.
2. Action with acid:
Strong acid damage the fibres. Concentrated sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid damage the fibre. But weak acid does not damage the fibre.
3. Action with bleaching:
No damaging event is occurred here. Cotton is converted into oxi-cellulose in strong oxidizing bleaching.

4. Action with organic solvent:
Resistance so dry is possible here.

5. Sunlight preventive power:
Ultraviolet ray converts the cotton into oxi-cellulose.
6. Mildew preventive power:
Untreated not easy. There is possibility to be affected.

7. Dye ability:
Affinity to color is good. Direct, reactive, sulphur and vat dyes are used.
8. Insects preventive power:
Not affected by moth.
9. Heat:
Conductive ironing temperature is 150°C where decompose is 2400°C and ignition temperature is 390°C.

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