Definition of Loom | Types of Weaving Loom | Classification of Looms

Different Types of Loom Used in Textile Weaving 

What is Loom in Weaving?

In weaving technology, a loom is not a machine but it is ultimately a device that is used to produce woven fabric by the insertion of weft and warp yarn. The loom is the main contact point of the total process of woven fabric production such as ginning, opening, spinning, carding, warping, winding, beaming, and sizing. It should be noted here that, looms are normally run by either motor fitted shaft or line shaft. Different types of loom have presented in this article.

Types of Loom Used in Weaving Technology:

The loom is mainly classified into two types. These are-

  1. Handloom,
  2. Power loom

The main loom types have explained in the following:

1. Hand Loom:

The handloom is powered by hand. In the case of handloom, the warp yarn passes through a heddle and space between the shed. Here, the shuttle is used for the insertion of the pick. Handloom is the first and the oldest loom among all the looms used in weaving technology. Handloom is classified into five types which are the below:

  • Vertical r primitive loom,
  • Pit loom,
  • Frame loom,
  • Hattersley loom,
  • Chittaranjan loom.

Pit Loom:

Pit loom is set by sinking four posters into the ground and with an overhang slay. In the case of a pit loom, the yarn work inside the pit so that the warp yarn may absorb moisture and better weaving will result. In this loom, the combination of slay and shuttle boxes.  Pit loom is two types where one is fly shuttle loom and another one is throw shuttle loom.

Frame Loom:

Frame looms almost have a similar mechanism that ground looms hold. The loom was made of rods and panels fastened at the right angles to construct a form similar to a box to make it more handy and manageable. Frame loom is being utilized even until now because of its portability and economy. Frame loom has two types, one is fly shuttle loom and another one is thrown shuttle loom.

2. Power loom:

Power loo has three types, those are-

  • Ordinary power loom,
  • Modern loom or shuttleless loom,
  • Automatic power loom.

Modern Loom or Shuttle Less Loom:

In weaving technology, modern looms mean shuttleless loom. During the 20th century, this type of loom machine has started to develop. There are various types of modern loom machines used in the weaving factory. Modern loom or shuttleless loom has classified into four types, such as-

  • Rapier loom,
  • Multiphase loom,
  • Projectile loom,
  • Jet loom.

Rapier Loom:

The rapier loom is a shuttleless loom machine. Here, filling yarn is carried through the shed of the warp yarns into another side of the loom by finger-like carriers. This type of looms is a competitor to the missile looms.  It has two types, those are-

  • Single rapier loom,
  • Double rapier loom.

Multiphase Loom:

It has also two types, these are-

  • Plain loom,
  • Circular loom.

Jet Loom:

The jet loom is classified into two types. These are-

  • Water jet loom,
  • Air-jet loom.

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