Different Types of Fabric Defects or Faults Produced in Textile:
There are some major fabric faults or defects produced in textile manufacturing sector, which are listed in the below:
- Unevenness of yarn and yarn knots,
- Weaving steps and weaving unevenness,
All the above fabric faults have explained in the following:
1. Unevenness of Yarn and Yarn Knots:
This is the defect, which spoils the external appearance, since the unevenness of yarn or the yarn knots of the warp and weft are seen on the surface. In case of high-grade fabrics, the local unevenness or knots are removed in the repairing activity. Especially, in woolen fabrics, before moving to the finishing process (after weaving), the knotting and mending of the parts with remarkable yarn unevenness and knots is done manually.
2. Weaving Steps and Weaving Unevenness:
Weaving steps means the yarn unevenness looks like lateral stripes. This occurs when the density of weft in some parts is coarse and in some parts it is tight. This fault is easily visible if the weft density is coarser. In colored fabrics, the parts with close density look darker and the coarse parts look lighter. Thus the fabric surface looks very bad. In addition, when it is not very clear that there are horizontal steps and when there is unevenness in the coarseness and tightness of weft density, it is termed as weaving unevenness (weft bars).
During the dyeing, drying and finishing of fabrics, the warps and wefts get rubbed by calendar roller etc. and they get contorted to local irregular shapes. This are called as twists. This fault can easily in fabrics with coarse density and the fabrics using yarns with smooth surface, such as silk, artificial silk and synthetic fabrics etc.
- Fig: Fabric pilling defects
This fault is seen when the degree of warp and weft tension becomes partially uneven during warp arrangement, paste application, drum reeling and weaving etc. Due to the light reflection, the yarn appears to be glittering in spots on the surface of the fabric. This is shown easily on fabrics using long fibers. It is especially striking in plain materials.
The drawback of wearing fabrics made with synthetic fibers and knit-wear undergarments is that small grain-light pills appear on the surface due to friction. This phenomenon is called as pilling. This phenomenon is commonly seen in woolen and cotton fabrics. But, since cotton and wool fibers are comparatively weak, though the pills appear, they wear out naturally and fall off.