Typical Textile Dye House Water Quality:
During the industrial revolution, the textile industry invariably grew in regions having an abundant supply of soft water such as in West Yorkshire. Such water is relatively free from calcium and magnesium salts. It does not precipitate soap or other chemicals during washing or form a scale on the boiler walls when generating steam.
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Water Parameters for Textile Dyeing Industry:
Water for a textile plant may come from various sources. These include surface water from rivers and lakes and subterranean water from wells. The water may be obtained directly from the source or from the local municipality. Natural and pretreated water may contain a variety of chemical species that can influence textile wet processing in general and dyeing in particular.
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The various salts present in water depend on the geological formations through which the water has followed. These salts are mainly the carbonates, hydrogen-carbonates more commonly named as bicarbonates, sulphates and chlorides of calcium, magnesium and sodium. Although calcium and magnesium carbonates in limestone are relatively insoluble, the action of dissolved carbon dioxide in rain water can leach them out in the form of the more soluble bicarbonates.
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Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions and gives an immediate precipitate with soap. Soap is water soluble sodium salt of a high molecular weight carboxylic acid such as stearic acid. Its calcium and magnesium salts are much less soluble and give a gummy precipitate with a soap solution in hard water. When this happens, the cleaning efficiency of the soap decreases dramatically. The dirt in suspension as well as the precipitated calcium and magnesium soaps can deposit back onto the material being washed. This gives a dingy fabric with a poor handle that will be difficult to dye in a level shade.
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Besides, dissolved salts of natural origin, water may contain a variety of other salts from human or industrial activity. These include nitrates, phosphates and various metal ions. The ions of certain transition metals such as those of iron, copper and manganese can precipitate dyes or form complexes with them dulling or even changing their shade.
Water entering textile dyeing or finishing plant usually passes through a grill to eliminate floating debris. Small particles in suspension must also be removed. The water may pass from the primary source into a settling pond, from which water can be drawn after any small particles have settled to the bottom, or it may be filtered by passage through a bed of fine sand. For particles smaller than about 0.02mm, a coagulant aids sedimentation and clarification of the water.
Typical Dye House Water Quality:
|Fig: Textile dye house water quality|